Few questions to understand better,
1. Does your web.config has the configuration related Handlers like,
<add verb="GET" path="I.axd" type="FiftyOne.Framework.Mobile.Includes.IncludesHandler, FiftyOne.Framework" ...
<add verb="GET" path="P.axd" type="FiftyOne.Framework.Image.ImageHandler, FiftyOne.Framework ...
2. What is the base class of Page code behind class?
3. What is the .Net Mobile Framework version installed?
Verify the page output (html source) of the page, to ensure it is not missing the patterns (not exactly the same content) as highlighted in the picture